Glossary

These terms will help you become more familiar as you discuss your project with us.

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Accordion fold
Bindery term, two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion.
Against the grain
Perpendicular to direction of paper grain.

Back up
Printing the second side of a sheet already printed on one side.
Banding
Method of packaging printed pieces of paper using rubber or paper bands.
Basis weight
Weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to the basic size for its grade.
Bind
To fasten sheets or signatures with wire, thread, glue or by other means.
Bindery
The finishing department of a print shop or firm specialising in finishing printed products.
Blanket
The thick rubber mat on a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to paper.
Bleed
Printing that goes to the edge of the sheet after trimming.
Blind embossing
An image pressed into a sheet without ink or foil.
Bulk
Thickness of paper stock in thousandths of an inch or number of pages per inch.
Bulk pack
Boxing printed product without wrapping or banding.
Burn
Exposing a printing plate to high intensity light or placing an image on a printing plate by light.
Butt
Joining images without overlapping.

Carbonless
Pressure sensitive writing paper without the use of carbon paper.
Caliper
Paper thickness in thousandths of an inch.
Case bind
A type of binding used in making hard cover books using glue.
Cast coated
Coated paper with a high gloss reflective finish.
Coated paper
A clay coated printing paper with a smooth finish.
Collate
A finishing term for gathering paper in a precise order.
Colour bar
A quality control term regarding the spots of ink colour on the tail of a sheet.
Colour separations
The process of preparing artwork for printing by separating into the four primary printing colours, CMYK.
Comb bind
To plastic comb bind by inserting the comb into punched holes.
Contrast
The tone change in colour from light to dark.
Cover paper
A heavy printing paper used to cover books, make presentation folders, etc.
Crop
To cut off parts of a picture or image.
Crop marks
Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.
Crossover
Printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication.
Cyan
One of four standard process colours.

Density
The degree of colour or darkness of an image or photograph.
Die
Metal rule or imaged block used to cut or place an image on paper in the finishing process.
Die cutting
Curing images in or out of paper.
Dot
An element of halftones.
Dummy
A rough layout of a printed piece showing position and finished size.
Duotone
A halftone picture made up of two printed colours.

Emboss
Pressing an image into paper so that it will create a raised relief.
Eurobind
A patented method of binding perfect bound books so they will open and lay flatter.

Flood
To cover a printed page with ink, varnish or plastic coating.
Foil
A metallic or pigmented coating on plastic sheets or rolls used in foil stamping and foil embossing.
Foil emboss
Foil stamping and embossing an image on paper with a die.
Foil stamping
Using a die to place a metallic or pigmented image on paper.
4-colour-process
The process of combining four basic colours to create a full colour image.
French fold
Two folds at right angles to each other.

Gloss
A shiny look reflecting light.
Grain
The direction in which the paper fibre lie.
Grippers
The metal fingers on a printing press that hold the paper as it passes through the press.

Hairline
A very thin line or gap about the width of a hair or 1/100 inch.
Halftone
Converting a continuous tone to dots for printing.
Hard copy
The output of a computer printer or typed text sent for typesetting.
Hickey
Re-occurring unplanned spots that appear in the printed image from dust, lint, dried ink.
Highlight
The lightest areas in a picture or halftone.

Image area
Portion of paper on which ink can appear.
Imposition
Positioning printed pages so they will fold in the proper order.
Imprint
Adding copy to a previously printed page.
Indicia
Postal information place on a printed product.
Ink fountain
The reservoir on a printing press that holds the ink.

Kiss die cut
To cut the top layer of a pressure sensitive sheet and not the backing.

Laminate
To cover with film to bond or glue one surface to another.
Lines per inch
The number of rows of dots per inch in a halftone.

Magenta
Process red, one of the four basic process colours.
Makeready
All the activities required to prepare a press for printing.
Matte finish
Dull paper or ink finish.
Moire
Occurs when screen angles are wrong causing odd patterns in tone.

Negative
The image on film that makes the white areas of originals black and black areas white.

Offset paper
Term for uncoated book paper.
Opacity
The amount of "show-through" on a printed sheet.
Over-run or overs
Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity (Printing trade terms allow for + - 10% to represent a completed order).

Page count
Total number of pages in a book including blanks.
Pattern carbon
Special carbon paper used in business forms that only transfers in certain areas.
Perfect bind
A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets to a cover (eg. telephone book).
Perfecting press
A sheet fed printing press that prints both sides of a sheet in one pass.
Pica
Unit of measure in typesetting. One pica = 1/6 inch.
Plate gap
Gripper space. The area where the grippers hold the sheet as it passes through the press.
PMS
The abbreviated name of the Pantone Colour Matching System.
Point
[PT] For paper, a unit of thickness = 1/1000 inch. For typesetting, a unit of height = 1/72 inch.
PostScript
[PS] The computer language most recognised by printing devices.
Process colours
[CMYK] Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black. These 4 colours make 16 million when combined in 4 colour printing.

Ream
Five hundred sheets of paper.
Recto
Right-hand page of an open book.
Register
To position print in the proper position in relation to the edge of the sheet and to other printing on the same sheet.
Register marks
Cross-hair lines or marks on film, plates and paper that guide strippers, platemakers, pressmen and bindery personnel in processing an order.

Saddle stitch
Binding a booklet or magazine with staples in the seam where it folds.
Score
A crease put on paper to help it fold better.
Self-cover
Using the same paper as the text for the cover.
Shadow
The darkest areas of a photograph.
Show-through
Printing on one side of a sheet that can be seen on the other side of the sheet.
Side stitch
Binding by stapling along one side of a sheet.
Signature
A sheet of printed pages which when folded become a part of a book or publication.
Spine
The binding edge of a book or publication.
Spoilage
Planned paper waste for all printing operations.
Spot varnish
Varnish used to highlight a specific part of the printed sheet.
Stamping
Term for foil stamping.
Stat
Term for inexpensive print of line copy or halftone.
Stet
A proof mark meaning let the original copy stand.
Stock
The material to be printed.
Stripping
The positioning of film on a flat prior to platemaking.
Substance weight
A term of basis weight when referring to bond papers.

Tints
A shade of a single colour or combined colours.
Transparency
A positive photographic slide on film allowing light to pass through.
Trapping
The ability to print one ink over the other.
Trim marks
Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed sheet.
Trim size
The size of a printed image after the last trim is made.

UV coating
Liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.

Varnish
A clear liquid applied to printed surfaces for looks and protection.
Verso
The left side page of an open book.
Vignette halftone
A halftone gradually fades to white.

Watermark
A design created in paper at the time of manufacture that can be seen by holding the paper up to a light.
Web press
Large presses that print from rolls of paper (eg. newspaper printing).
With the grain
Feeding paper into a press or folds in paper is parallel to the grain of the paper.
Work and tumble
Print one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail, utilising the same side guides and plate for the reverse side.
Work and turn
Print on one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right, utilizing the same side guides and plate for the reverse side.